Roofing, Flashings, and Chimneys

The primary feature of the roof device is to defend towards and manage the weather factors, mainly precipitation, thereby protecting the interior and structural components of the house. For the purposes of a home inspection, the roof machine is composed mostly of the roof coverings, flashings and chimney.

In addition to shielding the indoors elements of the house the roof components should additionally be designed, in conjunction with the gutters and downspouts, to direct rainwater and runoff far from the foundation vicinity, to help lessen the ability for soil erosion, compaction and water entering the basement place.

Because of the vital features this device affords, it’s circumstance should be assessed regularly, and upkeep furnished while and wherever essential.


There are basic sorts of roof construction, sloped (also called pictched) and flat. Most sloped roofs are blanketed with person Roof Installation  pieces of shingling fabric overlapped to prevent water penetration. Flat roofs are essentially watertight membranes that must have just sufficient slope to permit water to run off. The slope of a roof can be a element in the life expectancy of the roofing cloth. The life expectancy of a roof covering is also established upon the type of fabric used, the first-rate of expertise, exposure to sun and wear from tree branches, snow/ice and wind. For example, south and west roof faces have a higher put on thing than north or east exposures, fairly reflective shingles have a tendency to have an extended existence expectancy, and cement or slate roofs closing a good deal longer than standard ashphalt shingles (and fee loads more!)

Asphalt shingling is the most commonplace roofing fabric utilized in residential production in Canada. Other forms of overlaying for sloped roofs consist of asphalt roll roofing, concrete or clay tiles, wooden shakes and shingles, and slate shingles. There also are fibreglass shingles, metal shingles and metallic sheet roofing structures.

Flat roofs are constructed up with layers of molten asphalt and felts, or blanketed with a membrane of changed bitumin or asphalt base, or plastics or rubber. Most are warmth-sealed and some are glued.


The motive of flashings is to prevent the entry of water at regions on a roof wherein additives be part of together or intersect (i.E. One roof to every other or a chimney thru a roof). Flashings can be constructed of galvanized metal, tin, aluminum, copper, lead or lengths of roll-roofing. The preference of flashing fabric could be based upon the construction of the roof and the fabric used for the roof masking.

Flashings will expand and settlement, metal especially, with warmness from the sun and air temperature modifications. They are also predicted to transport and stretch with regular constructing shifts. The areas wherein flashings are required are typically very prone to water penetration. There is a high chance of water leakage and timber decay from a damaged, free or poorly built flashing. For all of the above motives, regualr monitoring and ordinary protection of the flashing regions is issential to preventing leaks.


The most commonplace substances used in chimney construction are masonry and steel. Masonry chimneys may be brick, block or stone and are sometimes stuccoed or parged. Chimneys frequently have multiple flue. A flue is a separate and wonderful channel for the smoke on the internal of the chimney. In most cases, every equipment in the residence must have a separate flue. In certain instances, two fuel furnaces at the equal floor within a residence can proportion a common flue, as can a gas furnace and a gas warm water heater at the equal degree. Some timber furnaces are designed to proportion a flue with an oil furnace, if on the identical floor level.

Some flues are unlined in that there is masonry uncovered on the inner of the flue. Unlined chimney flues are maximum commonplace in homes built earlier than the Second World War. These unlined masonry flues have executed moderately nicely for fireplaces and oil-fired furnaces, however most have deteriorated past a safe condition. Gas appliances require a suitable liner.

Flue may be lined with clay tiles or metallic liner. For extra records about chimneys and chimney liners, consult with the “Heating” segment.


Skylights are home windows installed right into a roof, in which the ceiling is vaulted with the roof, or in which a properly has been constructed thru the attic region, to provide a passage from the ceiling to the roof window. Ideally, skylights should be mounted on curbs, projecting at least 6 inches above the roof floor, simply so right flashings can be carried out. Some skylights are synthetic with built-in minimize and flashing assemblies. Sometimes skylights are mounted flush to the roof. This configuration nearly constantly results in water penetration on the joint between the skylight and the roofing cloth. Frequent tracking and everyday preservation of this joint are critical to reducing the occurrence of water penetration.

Evestroughs (gutters) and Downspouts
(See “Exterior”)


The thing of roofs this is maximum vulnerable to early deterioration is the vicinity around the flashings (chimneys, plumbing stacks, the intersection of or greater roofs, skylights, and many others.) It is not unusual for those areas to increase a leak properly earlier than the relaxation of the roof cloth has elderly substantially. Also, because those regions are regularly manufactured from steel they may be extra suceptible than the rest of the roof coverings to damage from wind and growth/contraction from freeze/thaw cycles. So while flashings may additionally appear excellent on the day of an inspection and the roof can be exceedingly young in age, the flashings should be monitored on a regular foundation (at the least semi-yearly) to discover any adjustments in circumstance that may suggest renovation or restore is essential. Leaks left unattended can motive serious harm to other elements of the roof and shape.